This detail from my painting for DEEP OCEAN STEWARDSHIP INITIATIVE (DOSI) was used for education at the recent COP 27, the United Nations Climate Change “Conference of the Parties” at Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt in November of 2022.
Olivia Pereira of Scripps Institution of Oceanography presented the image in her talk featured as part of The Deep Sea, The Climate and the Next Generation.
The pictured activity—mining of Polymetallic Nodule Fields—is projected to begin as soon as 2024 in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the central Pacific Ocean, at depths of ~4,000 – 5,500 meters (12,000 – 18,000 feet.) The nodules, which form extremely slowly (at a rate of one centimeter over several million years) and today can be the size of a baby potato, will be collected to extract copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, and rare earth elements—metals used in touch screens and batteries for green energy. This activity, which involves harvesting the nodules from the sea bed and bringing them to the surface and then to land, could result in the permanent (at least very long-lasting) destruction of sea life and the seabed habitat in the mined areas. Because the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is outside national jurisdiction, deep-sea mining in this region is regulated by the International Seabed Authority. Currently, contracts for mining exploration in the CCZ have been granted to 16 deep-sea mining contractors, with exploration areas covering approximately 1 million square kilometers (400,000 square miles) of little-studied mostly pristine sea bed.
The deep ocean is at risk of becoming industrialized in a haphazard way without sufficient environmental planning. Human activities like mining for various minerals, drilling for oil at depths of up to 10,000 feet in sensitive areas like methane seeps which need more research, and destructive deep sea trawl net fishing are increasing rapidly in the deep sea, virtually out of sight and often beyond national jurisdiction and control.
Please watch this excellent short video which explains in pictures the imminent mining of polymetallic nodules in the CCZ: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2022/08/29/world/deep-sea-riches-mining-nodules.html
For up-to-date information about this fast-moving topic go to https://www.dosi-project.org/topics/biodiversity-beyond-national-jurisdiction-bbnj/ (where you can also see my painting from which the detail is reproduced.)
Pictured in this detail: MANGANESE NODULE FIELDS (>4,000 meters deep): Manganese Nodules Mining Collector; Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea); Jellyfish, (Voragonema pedunculata); Deep Sea Anglerfish (Melanocetus johnsoni); Tripod Fish (Bathypterois grallator).
Michelle Guraieb of Scripps Institution of Oceanography at right at COP 27 Opening Ceremony, Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
My two paintings above and left were accepted into this online exhibition available now: Guild of Natural Science Illustrators Annual Juried Members Exhibition 2022 https://www.gnsi.org/2022conf_exhibition
GNSI is the national professional organization of science illustrators.
Show at the Explorers Club in NYC
ROSEBUD WHALE FALL
Oil painting on canvas on panel, 27 x 40”, 2021
Painted for Greg Rouse, Professor in the Marine Biology Research Division and Curator of Benthic Invertebrate Collection at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego. Greg Rouse has discovered and named more than 80 species of animals.
“ROSEBUD”was a 60 foot, 23 ton female Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus which, after washing up killed with a broken back (shown) because of a ship strike off the coast of La Jolla CA, was then dragged to deeper waters by Greg Rouse and his colleagues and sunk for the purpose of study at a depth of 2765 feet (843 meters). To make the carcass sink, it took 7 tons of rusty chains and shackles attached to the tail (shown).
The first modern whale fall was observed only in 1977 by a US Navy bathyscaphe, Trieste II. With the advent of robotic deep ocean exploration (ROVs) it is possible to observe many previously undiscovered species living in the unique ecosystem created by the fallen giant: the whale fall. Some are creatures which live only at whale falls. It is estimated that at any given time there are hundreds of thousands of whale falls throughout the world, but at depths which have made them difficult to reach and observe.
Some of the newly discovered whale fall species are depicted on this painting ROSEBUD WHALE FALL. Some, like Ampharetid tube worms and several new species of scaleworm—some iridescent!— live on the bacterial mat which forms around the skeleton as it decomposes. The mat is represented here as a white halo around the skeleton, and the species which live on the mat are shown connected on the painting by purple-gray lines.
The species which live primarily on the bone of the skeleton are depicted with similar cobalt blue lines. One such new species is Osedax roseus which lives on the bones of the giant whale and dissolves them using acid. Osedax (Latin for “bone-devourer”), a foundation species of the deep sea, evolved before the time of whales to decompose dinosaur bones: “They may have survived in seeps, wood-falls, and hydrothermal vents while waiting out the 20 million year gap between the reptiles’ extinction and the whales’ emergence.” Think of it, waiting for 20 million years!
The painting also features five vignettes, each of which shows a different small focus grouping of species of note, again related to either bone or mat.
It may take a half century or more before all traces of ROSEBUD vanish from the sea floor.
The many horizontal bands in the painting’s background refer to the water column of the open ocean. I was privileged to observe the water column while watching ROV SuBastion descend in the Pacific Ocean while aboard R/V Falkor last summer (2021.) SuBastian did seem to descend through many layers of color and transparency/opacity on the long way down to the ocean floor. (For a dive to 2700 meters (8866 ft.) it took SuBastion a hour and a half in seeming free-fall to reach bottom.) Each layer contains distinct colors and creatures…so beautiful and otherworldly…Ctenophores like miniature solar systems and pyrosomes like snowfall!
The further point of the painting is the interconnectedness of all the elements. Every part is essential to the life of the ocean ecosystem in ways that with new technologies such as DNA testing scientists are only beginning to understand. The bands connecting the species—purple-gray for mat and cobalt blue for bone—also mean that everything in the ocean is connected and interdependent. The ocean contains as yet unexplored benefits to humankind, for antibiotics or managing climate change. For example, microbes which live in the deep ocean gobble up methane, a greenhouse gas. Other deep ocean microbes have been recently discovered to have cancer-fighting properties. The whale fall itself embodies the potentialities and enigmas of oceanographic exploration: a majestic fallen giant which appears as a cathedral of bone to the approaching ROV, which sustains and supports innumerable ancient and evolving species with as yet unknown characteristics.
The ocean is impressively vast—but not inexhaustible. With this painting and others I hope to inspire people with its beauty and mystery, so that they will want to protect it.
REPRESENTED SPECIES: ABOVE THE SKELETON (from left):
- Bathykurila lucibohnorum (± 1 cm.) Polychaete. Iridescent.
- Vignette: Ophryotrocha tilici (Polychaete or “bristle-worm” (± 1 cm.) found in ROSEBUD’S eye socket, and as yet unnamed small red scaleworm at top, feeding on whale bone. The small red as-yet-unnamed scaleworms are also depicted on the mat halo all around the whale’s skeleton .
- Siphonophore Praya dubia (phylum Cnidaria) The longest animal in the ocean, Siphonophore has been recently measured at 150 feet or more, longer than a Blue Whale. It looks like one gigantic animal, but it is actually a colonial organism made up of thousands of genetically identical clones called “zooids.” Each zooid has its own specialized function for the survival of the colony: some sting prey, some navigate and others reproduce. Most zooids are so specialized they cannot survive on their own. Siphonophore lives in the pelagic zone, the water column of the open ocean.
- Hyalogyrina (3-4mm in length.) A newly discovered species of sea snail, pearly with a bright yellow stripe. Lives on the mat next to the bone. Also shown in the vignette of the Ampharetidae (tube-worms.)
- White Galatheid Crab Munidopsis quadrata (5 cm in length). Lives in the mud and mat around the bone of the whale fall.
- Vignette: Ampharetidae and Parastichopus. Ampharetidae Glyphanostomum sp. (emerging tube worm) with baby White Galatheid Crabs called out in detail at top. Vignette: Ampharetid Tube worms (a polychaete which inhabits the deep ocean) shown in bacterial mat and sediment with Hyalogyrina snails and baby Parastichopus (orange sea cucumber). Parastichopus (2 feet in length) is called out at right of vignette (also shown in the mat at the bottom of the whale skeleton in the correct scale relative to the whale skeleton.) Parastichopus is a scavenger which feeds on organic matter by sifting through the ocean floor sediment.
- Hagfish (2-3 feet.) A scavenger fish which strips the flesh from the whale skeleton. It has a skull made of cartilage, but no vertebral column.
- Vignette and Pannychia (Purple Sea Cucumber). The vignette shows a detail of the skin of the Pannychia (2 feet long), which has its own iridescent scaleworm genus mallicacephala living on it. The golden spheres surrounding the scaleworm in the vignette are the retracted purple tube feet of the Pannychia. The Pannychia is called out at right. You can see the little worm living on the host sea cucumber Pannychia.
- Two Dover Soles Microstomus pacificus (near skeleton living in the mat.)
- Glass Sponge Porifera hyalonema and anemone living on glass spicule (sponge stalk, 4 feet tall.) “Porifera” means “Pore-bearer.” The sponge is a detritivore which eats organic debris particles and microscopic life forms which it filters out of ocean water. The spicule is made of a double helix of glass strands. It is not yet known how the sponge forms the glass. The anemone has colonized on the spicule—advantageous because it is higher in the current and can reach more food.
REPRESENTED SPECIES: BELOW THE SKELETON (from left):
- Two Sea Anemones Cnidaria anthozoa actiniaria liponematidae brevicornis living on a dead Glass Sponge stalk. Sea Anemone is a predatory invertebrate animal, related to coral, jellyfish and hydra. It is thought that some Glass Sponges living on the seabed were killed at the time ROSEBUD was sunk in 2011. The stalk or spicule remained (made of glass and thus not alive). These anemones are using the glass stalk to get off the ocean floor to a higher position where they can get more food in the current. Writing in the New Yorker magazine about his visit to the ROSEBUD whale fall in 2014, geobiologist Jeffrey Marlowe described: “Fluffy pink anemones swayed at the peaks (of ROSEBUD’S tall vertebrae) presaging the whale’s future as a reef—a place where animals and corals can bathe in the currents, catching food as it drifts through.”
- Neogyptis pennyae (Hesionidae; ± 1 cm), a newly discovered carnivorous bristle worm which feeds on bone. Most Hesionidae are found on the continental shelf.
- Vignette: Osedax roseus (Latin “Bone-devourer”) lives exclusively on whale falls, feeding off the fats within the pictured bone matrix. This species evolved before the advent of whales, originally decomposing the bones of dinosaurs. In the interval between the extinction of dinosaurs and the appearance of whales—20 million years of evolution— Osedax waited, surviving in methane seeps, hydrothermal vents or wood-falls. WOW. At the right, an individual female Osedax (1 cm wide and 10 cm long ) is called out. She has a “harem” of up to 114 males (100,000 times smaller) living in her trunk. She spawns eggs continually (shown) and dissolves the bone with acid which she secretes. There is one Osedax which has an independent male, O. priapus (not on ROSEBUD). Priapus is the Greek protector god of livestock, gardens and male genitalia. Osedax is a foundation species of the deep sea.
- Vignette: Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina (2 cm long) with Osedax roseus and the as-yet-unnamed small red scaleworm, living on the decomposing whale bone. The newly discovered beautiful Peinaleopolynoe santacatalina, Shiny Scaleworm, is iridescent. It is called out on the right of the vignette.
- Blacktail Snailfish Careproctus melanurus (54 cm length.)
- Micospina auribohnorum, (Chrysopetalidae, Annelida; ± 1 cm) New genus, new species.
- Scarlett King Crab Lithodes couesi (2 feet across including legs) walks on the seafloor and feeds on other crabs, dead animals and sea stars. It is found to 2400 feet.
Because of the increasing interest worldwide in mining the deep ocean, scientific exploration of formerly inaccessible areas where desirable minerals occur has become even more crucial. A primary objective of BIODIVERSE BORDERLANDS, Schmidt Ocean Institute’s cruise to study the mineral-rich continental shelf adjacent to Southern California, was to locate and sample phosphorite and ferromanganese, minerals which form on steep deep ocean slopes. This painting shows a map highlighting elevation, which was created by Falkor’s advanced bathymetric technology for our first dive of the cruise to Hancock Ridge. Similar to the way an ultrasound works, this technology sends multi-beam sonar sound pulses over a swath of the seabed which then return to the ship. Each depth has an associated color: purple is flattest and red is steepest.
Gouache on Stonehenge paper, 8 x 10″, 2021
This ethereal invertebrate moves through the layers of the world’s oceans by using its cilia to swim. Although it is commonly known as Comb Jelly, it is actually not related to jellyfish. Approximately 200 species of Ctenophore have been identified, but a new research methodology called Environmental DNA Sampling may permit the identification of as many as 800 of these fragile organisms.
Most are bioluminescent, often translucent, shimmering or iridescent.
This beautiful Ctenophore appears as a starry galaxy floating in a vast space. We observed it via FALKOR’S SuBastian ROV at San Juan Sea Mount, depth of 1450 meters (4757 feet, nearly one mile.)
Gouache on Stonehenge paper, 8 x 10″, 2021
The genus Poralia contains as yet only a single species, Poralia rufescens. It lives in the pelagic zone of the deep ocean. In this case, it was seen during SuBastian’s descent to San Juan Sea Mount (1450 meters.) Poralia rufescens has around 30 tentacles and a 9 cm bell; it moves by pulsing its body. The distinctive glowing plummy-orange color of this species (which, along with its translucency is what drew me to paint it) helps camouflage it from predators, because red light disappears with depth. At the deeper layers of the water column, the elusive jellyfish seems to vanish from view.
Gouache on Arches paper, 9 x 12″, 2021
I was invited to be Artist-at-Sea in July and August on an oceanographic research vessel, R/V FALKOR, with a team of scientists from Scripps Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the cruise was to explore and conduct a baseline survey of the borderlands of the continental crust off the coast of California. To watch a short video about our cruise and read my blogs, “Who Drinks the Water of Life?” and “Painting Other Worlds” please visit:
Sea Anemone Liponema brevicornis (?) (Phylum Cnidaria) is a predatory invertebrate animal. It is related to coral, jellyfish and Hydra.
It is thought that some Glass Sponges living on the seabed were killed at the time Rosebud was sunk off the coast of Point Loma, San Diego. The stalk or spicule (made of glass and thus not alive) remained. These anemones are using the glass stalk to get off the ocean floor to a higher position where they can get more food in the current. (See illustration below of Glass Sponge on its stalk/spicule—a double helix of glass strands.)
I have four paintings currently on view in this online show, which will be available to view through October 2020. This juried exhibition is sponsored by The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in celebration of the beauty and elegance of planetary science. You can see two of my paintings in the Fine Arts selection, and two in the Data Art category. To view this show go to www.lpl.arizona.edu/art. Thank you!
Lithodes couesi is one of the species to be found on the Rosebud Whale Fall, located off the coast of Point Loma in San Diego at a depth of 2765 feet (843 meters). “Rosebud,” a 60 foot female fin whale weighing 23 tons, had washed up on the beach after being struck and killed by a ship. In order to study what would happen to the carcass as it lay on the ocean floor (the first whale fall was discovered by a Navy bathyscaphe only in 1977 ), Greg Rouse of Scripps Institution of Oceanography quickly mobilized to sink it in a location in which the natural processes could be observed. Seven tons of chain and shackles (visible in the upper right corner of this detail) were used to sink the fallen giant, in November 2011, twelve miles offshore. Since then, there have been at least six visits by R.O.V.s (Remotely Operated Vehicles) to track the colonization and the slow disintegration of the Rosebud skeleton, an ecosystem unto itself, lying one and a half miles beneath the surface of the ocean.
My painting, ROSEBUD WHALE FALL, visually describes some of the notable creatures which have been discovered at this deep ocean site.
Detail, ROSEBUD WHALE FALL, Oil on canvas mounted on panel, 27 x 40″
© Tanya Young 2020.